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加密貨幣放在交易所是否安全?FTX一夜崩盤引發市場擔憂

加密貨幣放在交易所是否安全?FTX一夜崩盤引發市場擔憂

Mia Taylor 2022-11-14
對于那些并未持續關注加密貨幣行業動向的人士而言,無論從哪個角度來看,FTX的崩潰都是一件大事。

FTX的崩盤引發市場擔憂,資金放在交易所是否安全遭到質疑。圖片來源:PHOTO ILLUSTRATION BY FORTUNE; ORIGINAL PHOTOS BY GETTY IMAGES

全球第二大、同時也是增長最快的加密貨幣交易所——FTX在被競爭對手幣安(Binance)收購的過程中一夜崩潰,消息傳來,整個加密貨幣世界都為之一驚。

FTX并非首個突然崩塌的大型加密貨幣機構,與之類似的還有Celsius和Voyager,二者均在今年春天申請破產保護。在退場過程中,試圖維持公司運營的管理層還把手伸進了客戶賬戶。隨著FTX破產倒閉的全部影響逐漸清晰,市場開始擔憂,將通證(token)存放在交易所或經紀商處是否足夠安全。

FTX崩盤的重大影響

對于那些并未持續關注加密貨幣行業動向的人士而言,無論從哪個角度來看,FTX的崩潰都是一件大事。

貴為全球第二大加密貨幣交易所,FTX及其首席執行官薩姆·班克曼-弗里德(綽號SBF)都是加密貨幣世界里冉冉升起的新星。就在今年8月,SBF還登上了《財富》雜志的封面,而按照喬?!じダ诐傻恼f法,甚至在此之前,SBF就已經是備受尊敬的知名人士了。喬?!じダ诐墒荗rigin Protocol公司的聯合創始人,該公司推出了可以獲得收益的穩定幣——Origin Dollar和NFT(非同質化代幣)平臺——Origin Story。

“這件事情絕對會產生重大影響?!备ダ诐稍谝淮谓邮懿稍L時說,“SBF在業內非常高調,贊助過體育場館,登上過雜志封面,還曾經前往華盛頓與監管機構交涉,要求加大對加密貨幣的監管力度,為了出名,他付出了很多努力,而且一直非常值得信賴。很多人都對他推崇備至,認為他很靠譜?!?/p>

但FTX最終似乎并未做到“名副其實”,也未能恪守對客戶的承諾(比如不對外出借客戶入金、確??蛻舸嬖贔TX中的資產安全),弗雷澤表示。他還補充道:“很明顯,事實并不是FTX所承諾的那樣,資產存放在他們那里并不安全。因此,FTX崩盤事件絕對會產生重大影響,遺憾的是,很多無辜人士正在因為FTX的不負責任而受到傷害”。

雖然FTX的崩塌會造成多大損失還有待觀察,但加密貨幣投資者依然能夠從這個案例中吸取一些教訓,其中最重要的是,將加密貨幣存放在交易所或經紀商處(尤其是在市場動蕩或衰退的時期)并非最安全的做法。

是否應將加密貨幣存放在經紀商和交易所處?

我們必須對一般性加密貨幣投資(據專家介紹,如果可以遵守一些重要原則,此類投資目前就依然安全)與將加密貨幣存放在經紀商或交易所處的行為進行區分。

經紀商和交易所往往不夠透明,而且交給他們等同于允許他人保管你的資產,并且相信他們能夠做到“履職盡責”。

1. 無鑰即無幣,幣鑰為一體

“無鑰即無幣,幣鑰為一體?!边@是加密貨幣行業的一句名言,也是這個行業的一個黃金法則,其本質上可以歸結為一個事實,即:如果你把自己的加密貨幣交給其他人保管,那就相當于你放棄了對這些加密貨幣的控制權。

Castle Funds的總裁兼首席信息官彼得·埃伯利稱:“把加密貨幣放在交易所(無論是中心化交易所還是去中心化交易所)就等同于放棄了控制權,選擇相信他們的承諾,相信他們會保管好你的比特幣(Bitcoin)?!盋astle Funds是一家投資公司,自2017年以來一直在管理加密貨幣投資基金,對比特幣和其他數字貨幣進行投資。

FTX事件表明,加密貨幣交易所透明不足的問題依然存在,這給管理不當行為的出現留下了空間,在此背景之下,自然是小心為妙?!霸诠善笔袌錾线M行交易時,我們能夠放心地把股票交給托管人,因為他們受到的監管更為嚴密,還會受到審計。而加密貨幣交易所則是‘暗箱操作’,無法了解其中情況?!卑2a充道,“就在今天,又有幾家交易所發布公告,表示自己將不得不提高透明度?!?/p>

弗雷澤也給出了類似的建議,他指出,無論市場整體情況如何,把加密貨幣存在交易所都不是明智之舉。

弗雷澤稱:“FDX并非首個崩盤的交易所。加密貨幣的全部意義就在于,我們不必再將信任寄托在他人身上。加密貨幣的出現就是為了解決這個問題,幫助我們擺脫那些不知道拿我們的錢做什么的不透明體系?!?/p>

2. 保管好自己的資產

正如前文所說,我們認為與其將加密貨幣存放在交易所或經紀商處,還不如自己保管,這樣要安全得多。所謂自己保管是指將其存在一個類似U盤的硬件錢包或者在線軟件錢包中。無論哪種方式,加密貨幣的控制權都依然在你手中,并且可以通過私鑰加密對其進行保護。

弗雷澤解釋道:“私鑰加密使用的技術與確保我們能夠安全訪問網站、在網上輸入信用卡信息的技術相同。這些密鑰可以確保你的數字資產安全無虞”。

埃伯利表示,如果選擇硬件錢包(例如Ledger錢包),那么只有轉賬時,你的加密貨幣才會出現在互聯網上。其余時間,你能夠把存有加密貨幣的硬件錢包放在保險箱或保險柜里。

3. 選擇有專業人員管理的賬戶進行投資

對于高凈值加密貨幣投資者來說,通過有專業人員管理的賬戶進行投資,也是一種保障資產安全的手段。這就是埃伯利的公司Castle Funds正在做的事情。該公司專注于與那些經過資質認證的高凈值投資者合作,在處理加密貨幣投資時,該公司會使用離線托管工具存放客戶資產。

埃伯利表示:“絕大多數時間,我們的通證都以離線方式保管,所以可以規避風險(比如交易所的風險)。把通證存放在交易所的原因不是懶惰,就是不知道如何將加密貨幣存入自己的錢包?!?/p>

如果你才接觸加密貨幣投資,那么一定就要找個有經驗的人帶你了解如何將加密貨幣存入自己的錢包。

弗雷澤指出,就加密貨幣投資整體來說,目前仍然安全,這是底線。但交易所和經紀商不夠透明的問題依然存在。

“不要把在這些交易所的問題與加密貨幣本身混為一談?!备ダ诐烧f,“一定不要把錢放在交易所,盡快提走。不過事實一直如此。如果你不放心自己保管,那么就可以考慮將其放在像Coinbase這樣受監管的平臺,Coinbase是一個透明平臺,并且會公布自己的加密貨幣儲備,不會搞些見不得人的把戲,用戶能夠放心地把加密貨幣放在那里?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

編者注:本文包含的建議、意見或排名出自Fortune Recommends?編輯團隊。相關內容未經任何合作伙伴或其他第三方審查,也未得到任何合作伙伴或其他第三方認可。

譯者:梁宇

審校:夏林

全球第二大、同時也是增長最快的加密貨幣交易所——FTX在被競爭對手幣安(Binance)收購的過程中一夜崩潰,消息傳來,整個加密貨幣世界都為之一驚。

FTX并非首個突然崩塌的大型加密貨幣機構,與之類似的還有Celsius和Voyager,二者均在今年春天申請破產保護。在退場過程中,試圖維持公司運營的管理層還把手伸進了客戶賬戶。隨著FTX破產倒閉的全部影響逐漸清晰,市場開始擔憂,將通證(token)存放在交易所或經紀商處是否足夠安全。

FTX崩盤的重大影響

對于那些并未持續關注加密貨幣行業動向的人士而言,無論從哪個角度來看,FTX的崩潰都是一件大事。

貴為全球第二大加密貨幣交易所,FTX及其首席執行官薩姆·班克曼-弗里德(綽號SBF)都是加密貨幣世界里冉冉升起的新星。就在今年8月,SBF還登上了《財富》雜志的封面,而按照喬?!じダ诐傻恼f法,甚至在此之前,SBF就已經是備受尊敬的知名人士了。喬?!じダ诐墒荗rigin Protocol公司的聯合創始人,該公司推出了可以獲得收益的穩定幣——Origin Dollar和NFT(非同質化代幣)平臺——Origin Story。

“這件事情絕對會產生重大影響?!备ダ诐稍谝淮谓邮懿稍L時說,“SBF在業內非常高調,贊助過體育場館,登上過雜志封面,還曾經前往華盛頓與監管機構交涉,要求加大對加密貨幣的監管力度,為了出名,他付出了很多努力,而且一直非常值得信賴。很多人都對他推崇備至,認為他很靠譜?!?/p>

但FTX最終似乎并未做到“名副其實”,也未能恪守對客戶的承諾(比如不對外出借客戶入金、確??蛻舸嬖贔TX中的資產安全),弗雷澤表示。他還補充道:“很明顯,事實并不是FTX所承諾的那樣,資產存放在他們那里并不安全。因此,FTX崩盤事件絕對會產生重大影響,遺憾的是,很多無辜人士正在因為FTX的不負責任而受到傷害”。

雖然FTX的崩塌會造成多大損失還有待觀察,但加密貨幣投資者依然能夠從這個案例中吸取一些教訓,其中最重要的是,將加密貨幣存放在交易所或經紀商處(尤其是在市場動蕩或衰退的時期)并非最安全的做法。

是否應將加密貨幣存放在經紀商和交易所處?

我們必須對一般性加密貨幣投資(據專家介紹,如果可以遵守一些重要原則,此類投資目前就依然安全)與將加密貨幣存放在經紀商或交易所處的行為進行區分。

經紀商和交易所往往不夠透明,而且交給他們等同于允許他人保管你的資產,并且相信他們能夠做到“履職盡責”。

1. 無鑰即無幣,幣鑰為一體

“無鑰即無幣,幣鑰為一體?!边@是加密貨幣行業的一句名言,也是這個行業的一個黃金法則,其本質上可以歸結為一個事實,即:如果你把自己的加密貨幣交給其他人保管,那就相當于你放棄了對這些加密貨幣的控制權。

Castle Funds的總裁兼首席信息官彼得·埃伯利稱:“把加密貨幣放在交易所(無論是中心化交易所還是去中心化交易所)就等同于放棄了控制權,選擇相信他們的承諾,相信他們會保管好你的比特幣(Bitcoin)?!盋astle Funds是一家投資公司,自2017年以來一直在管理加密貨幣投資基金,對比特幣和其他數字貨幣進行投資。

FTX事件表明,加密貨幣交易所透明不足的問題依然存在,這給管理不當行為的出現留下了空間,在此背景之下,自然是小心為妙?!霸诠善笔袌錾线M行交易時,我們能夠放心地把股票交給托管人,因為他們受到的監管更為嚴密,還會受到審計。而加密貨幣交易所則是‘暗箱操作’,無法了解其中情況?!卑2a充道,“就在今天,又有幾家交易所發布公告,表示自己將不得不提高透明度?!?/p>

弗雷澤也給出了類似的建議,他指出,無論市場整體情況如何,把加密貨幣存在交易所都不是明智之舉。

弗雷澤稱:“FDX并非首個崩盤的交易所。加密貨幣的全部意義就在于,我們不必再將信任寄托在他人身上。加密貨幣的出現就是為了解決這個問題,幫助我們擺脫那些不知道拿我們的錢做什么的不透明體系?!?/p>

2. 保管好自己的資產

正如前文所說,我們認為與其將加密貨幣存放在交易所或經紀商處,還不如自己保管,這樣要安全得多。所謂自己保管是指將其存在一個類似U盤的硬件錢包或者在線軟件錢包中。無論哪種方式,加密貨幣的控制權都依然在你手中,并且可以通過私鑰加密對其進行保護。

弗雷澤解釋道:“私鑰加密使用的技術與確保我們能夠安全訪問網站、在網上輸入信用卡信息的技術相同。這些密鑰可以確保你的數字資產安全無虞”。

埃伯利表示,如果選擇硬件錢包(例如Ledger錢包),那么只有轉賬時,你的加密貨幣才會出現在互聯網上。其余時間,你能夠把存有加密貨幣的硬件錢包放在保險箱或保險柜里。

3. 選擇有專業人員管理的賬戶進行投資

對于高凈值加密貨幣投資者來說,通過有專業人員管理的賬戶進行投資,也是一種保障資產安全的手段。這就是埃伯利的公司Castle Funds正在做的事情。該公司專注于與那些經過資質認證的高凈值投資者合作,在處理加密貨幣投資時,該公司會使用離線托管工具存放客戶資產。

埃伯利表示:“絕大多數時間,我們的通證都以離線方式保管,所以可以規避風險(比如交易所的風險)。把通證存放在交易所的原因不是懶惰,就是不知道如何將加密貨幣存入自己的錢包?!?/p>

如果你才接觸加密貨幣投資,那么一定就要找個有經驗的人帶你了解如何將加密貨幣存入自己的錢包。

弗雷澤指出,就加密貨幣投資整體來說,目前仍然安全,這是底線。但交易所和經紀商不夠透明的問題依然存在。

“不要把在這些交易所的問題與加密貨幣本身混為一談?!备ダ诐烧f,“一定不要把錢放在交易所,盡快提走。不過事實一直如此。如果你不放心自己保管,那么就可以考慮將其放在像Coinbase這樣受監管的平臺,Coinbase是一個透明平臺,并且會公布自己的加密貨幣儲備,不會搞些見不得人的把戲,用戶能夠放心地把加密貨幣放在那里?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

編者注:本文包含的建議、意見或排名出自Fortune Recommends?編輯團隊。相關內容未經任何合作伙伴或其他第三方審查,也未得到任何合作伙伴或其他第三方認可。

譯者:梁宇

審校:夏林

The crypto world has been reeling today amid news that FTX, the second-largest and fastest-growing crypto exchange, essentially collapsed overnight amid a takeover by rival Binance.

This is not the first time that a large crypto firm has folded abruptly. Celsius and Voyager provide two similar examples—both went under this past spring. And on their way out, dipped into customer accounts to try and stay afloat. As the full ramifications of the FTX insolvency and collapse become clear, it raises questions about just how safe it is to keep tokens in exchanges or with brokerages.

The significance the FTX collapse

For those who don’t follow every twist and turn of the crypto industry, the collapse of FTX is a big deal by any measure.

As the second-largest crypto exchange, FTX and its CEO Sam Bankman-Fried, who goes by SBF, were rising stars in the crypto world. Just this past August, SBF appeared on the cover of Fortune, and even prior to that he was a very public and well-respected figure, says Josh Fraser, co-founder of Origin Protocol, a company that created Origin Dollar, a yield-bearing stable coin, and Origin Story, an NFT platform.

“This is absolutely massive,” Fraser said during an interview. “SBF has been very visible in the industry—from sponsoring stadiums and appearing on the cover of magazines to being in Washington D.C. talking to regulators and calling for more regulations of crypto—he’s been really working to make a name for himself and has been a very trusted person. A lot of people respected him and viewed him as a good actor.”

In the end however, it seems FTX was not all that it appeared and had not been keeping its promises to its customers, says Fraser. This includes promises about not lending out customer deposits and that customer assets were safe with FTX. “Clearly that was not the case. Assets were not safe. So this is absolutely huge and unfortunately a lot of innocent people are getting hurt by this,” Fraser added.

While it remains to be seen just how much damage will be done by FTX’s implosion, there are some lessons crypto investors can learn from this case. Chief among them—keeping coins in crypto exchanges or brokerages, particularly amid volatility or downturns, is not the safest move.

Should you keep crypto in brokerages and exchanges?

It’s important to make a distinction between investing in crypto generally—which experts say still remains safe when you follow a few key best practices—and keeping your coins in brokerages or exchanges such as FTX.

There is often a lack of transparency with brokerages and exchanges that can be problematic, you’re also allowing someone else to hold your assets, and trusting that they will do so responsibly.

1. Not your keys, not your coins

There’s a well-known expression or golden rule in the crypto industry—“Not your keys, not your coins.” And it essentially boils down to the fact that when you turn your coins over to someone else to hold and keep secure, you’re abdicating control over them.

“When you leave your crypto on an exchange, whether it’s centralized or decentralized, you have given up control. You’re taking their promise that your bitcoins are actually there,” says Peter Eberle, president and chief information officer for Castle Funds, an investment firm that has been managing funds invested in Bitcoin and other digital currencies since 2017.

This is concerning because as the FTX case makes clear, there continues to be a lack of transparency among exchanges, which leaves opportunity for mismanagement. “On the stock market, you leave your stocks with a custodian, and it’s safe because they are more regulated, and they are audited. These exchanges work in this dark hole where you can’t see into it,” continues Eberle. “Just today there were several announcements about how they’re going to have to provide more transparency.”

Fraser offers similar advice, pointing out that keeping coins in an exchange is almost always a bad idea, no matter what’s going on with the broader market.

“FDX is not the first exchange to fail,” says Fraser. “The whole point of crypto is that you don’t have to trust other people anymore. Crypto was designed to save us from this exact problem—these opaque systems where you don’t know what is being done with your money.”

2. Custody your own assets

Related to the points just made, rather than keeping coins on exchanges or with brokerages, it’s far safer to custody your own assets. This means keeping them in a physical hardware wallet similar to a USB drive or alternatively, in an online software wallet. In both cases, you are the one who maintains control over the coins and access to them is protected through private key cryptography.

“Private key cryptography is the same technology that allows us to visit a website and enter our credit card information online safely,” explains Fraser. “It’s the same technology as that. These keys are what secure your assets, your digital assets.”

When you opt for a hardware wallet, such as a Ledger device, only when you are moving crypto currency around do you put your coins on the internet. The rest of the time, they can be kept in your hardware wallet in a safe, or safety deposit box, says Eberle.

3. Invest in professionally managed accounts

For high net worth crypto investors, yet another measure of safety may be achieved by investing through professionally-managed accounts. This is what Eberle’s own firm, Castle Funds, does. He specializes in working with accredited, high-net-worth investors and when handling crypto investments the firm uses offline custody tools for client’s assets.

“The vast majority of the time, our tokens are in custody offline, so it does away with the risk, such as an exchange risk,” says Eberle. “The only reason to leave tokens on an exchange is laziness, or lack of understanding in terms of how to put crypto in your wallet.”

If you are new to crypto investing, it’s important to have someone who is experienced, guide you through the process of putting crypto in your own wallet.

Bottom line, says Fraser, is that crypto investing as a whole remains safe. But exchanges and brokerages continue to lack transparency.

“Don’t confuse what’s happening on these exchanges with crypto itself,” says Fraser. “Absolutely do not leave money on exchanges. Pull it off. But that’s true all the time. For people who are too scared to handle self custody, consider regulated platforms like Coinbase, which is transparent and publishes its reserves. Using platforms like Coinbase, people can see there’s no funny business and that their money is safe.”

EDITORIAL DISCLOSURE: The advice, opinions, or rankings contained in this article are solely those of the Fortune Recommends? editorial team. This content has not been reviewed or endorsed by any of our affiliate partners or other third parties.

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